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Today, there are almost no areas and topics closed to international business on Earth.

Today, there are almost no areas and topics closed to international business on Earth.

The concession era paved the way for the self-determination of colonial and semi-colonial countries in economic terms, and World War II provided significant political impetus to these processes.

On the other hand, such phenomena as the internationalization of the world labor market and the intensification of competition in world markets for raw materials, semi-finished and finished products, the main participants of which seek to gain a competitive advantage, using the increasingly complex structure of m / n business, the next era of nation-states, but also to the globalization of business in general.

4. The era of nation-states (1945-1970). Two main directions of development of m / n business: first, the formation and rapid development of dozens of new nation-states, which received as a result of the concession era in a sense a developed economic base and some personnel and technological structure.

On the other hand, there are all the shortcomings of colonial economic development: from monoproduct economies to difficult financial problems. This was the initial impetus for the significant development of m / n business: independent states actively sought markets for traditional products of their exports and were active recipients for any investment. This was the impetus for the development of international capital markets, the emergence and development of a number of new financial instruments, the growth of international auditing and consulting.

On the other hand, the most powerful American corporations, taking advantage of the dominant position of the United States in the postwar period, for the first time made a breakthrough to multinational business, ie to a qualitatively new stage of m / n business development, when the world becomes essentially an arena of competition. sphere of corporate interests.

In 60-70 years they were overtaken and overtaken by European and Japanese rivals. The conquest of markets for goods and services is always mediated, and in turn mediates an even tougher struggle of the same rivals in the m / n, regional and national markets for capital, technology, labor, information, etc.

The real advancement of the national economy to efficient production and services requires a certain complex, called the “development package”, which includes: technology, capital, information, qualifications and competence of staff, consulting support and others. But getting it “immediately and together” in the 70’s was difficult, so developing countries and their firms took different elements of the package in different countries and from different firms, making it “optimal for themselves.” Since for a real multinational business the whole world is the field of its business game, the formation of such a package for their own purposes or in the interests of partners can be carried out most effectively.

The beginning of globalization of m / n business. Further development of multinationality in m / n business, from an external point of view, went by increasing the number of MNCs, although in the 70’s and 80’s there was a qualitative breakthrough: among the largest MNCs are firms from developing countries and are at different stages of development: Korea, the Philippines, India, Taiwan, etc. But the internal content of this process has just prepared the transition of m / n business to the highest point of its development – globalization.

If in the past MNCs solved relatively simple problems of production and distribution of goods, in recent decades they began to solve much more complex and global problems: S. Ronen defines them as the creation and use of a network of multinational services, including banks, advertising agencies, consulting firms, universities, health care facilities, etc., which rely on global computerization.

In this case, it does not matter to which country belongs one or another element of the service – multinationality is not so cosmopolitan that it has “no homeland” (after all, Intel is still an American company, as Soni – Japanese, and Siemens – German), and because it cannot allow (other things being equal!) To replace efficiency with patriotism.

Forming its own network of multinational services, each MNC views it as its own guarantee of business efficiency, and the fact that these networks eventually merge into a global network simply increases the efficiency of the system as a whole.

Factors of m / n business development. Branded business requires different levels of internationality depending on two main factors. If we consider the business of a firm from country A to country B, the factor structure will be as follows.

First, the level of international business of the firm depends on the depth of its involvement in the business in country B. If we are talking about one-time sales of goods through the export-import firm of country A, then this lowest level of involvement does not reflect any need and international component of business – after all such operations do not differ from sales and calculations with other firms, and all m / n component takes place in office of export-import firm and is hidden from the manufacturer.

It is a edit papers online for money different matter if the firm has started production in country B, hired local staff, deployed a distribution network (or cooperated), etc. Internationality is most evident here: from language issues to local tax legislation and from repatriation of foreign exchange earnings to participation. in local social actions. It is clear that between these two poles lies a number of successive stages of international development.

Secondly, internationality depends on the level of cultural similarity between countries A and B. If A is France and B is Italy, then the affiliation of both countries not just to Europe, but to one cluster of European Romance (Latin) countries, allows us to recognize a high level mutual understanding and international adaptation of the relevant management in the cultural (most complex) aspect will be quite simple. But if A is France and B is Ukraine, then things look much more complicated. And a very high level of internationality is needed in the pair “France – Japan” if we take into account cultural differences.

The role of the era of nation-states. Era nat. states gave a significant impetus to the development of m / n business and made it a sphere of the whole world, in which closed systems such as “metropolis-colony” ceased to exist. At the same time, m / n business reached a qualitatively new level of development and therefore needed a qualitatively new management system.

The breadth of business operations around the world makes the previous formula “management of foreign operations” or “management of foreign trade” inadequate to the requirements of global efficiency of branded business. The formula “international management” needs to be replaced. And the fact that MNCs were the first to understand this is due to the nature of MNCs – they were the first to reach the highest level of internationality both in terms of depth of involvement and cultural factor, because the global efficiency of the firm (and it is the main goal) requires absolute freedom of choice. in any country and absolute freedom of choice of the country itself.

5. The era of globalization (since the 70’s of the 20th century). This period of development of civilization in general and business in particular is marked by revolutionary technological changes, followed by economic, social and political changes. The computer revolution and the significant development of telecommunications have virtually changed the face of all traditional technologies by taking them to a whole new level.

Today, there are almost no areas and topics closed to international business on Earth.

Real globalization is characterized by the fact that m / n economic ties have covered almost all countries of the world and each of them depends on m / n business. The consequences of this are twofold: on the one hand, a country can enjoy all the benefits without feeling the negative consequences of its lack of certain resources, opportunities, etc. But, on the other hand, the natural price for this is a significant dependence of the country on world markets in general: it is impossible to use only the benefits of integration into the world economy, it is necessary to bear the risks of this process (the global financial crisis of 1998).


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Planning as the main management function. Abstract

The purpose of planning as a management function is to try to take into account in advance, if possible, all internal and external factors that provide favorable conditions for the proper functioning and development of enterprises

Each firm, starting its activities, must clearly present the need for the future in financial, labor and intellectual resources, sources of their receipt, as well as be able to accurately calculate the effectiveness of the available funds in the process of their firm.

In a market economy, entrepreneurs can not achieve stable success if they do not clearly and effectively plan their activities, constantly collect and accumulate information about the state of target markets, the position of competitors, and their own prospects and opportunities.

With all the variety of forms of entrepreneurship, there are key provisions that apply in almost all areas of business and for different firms, necessary to prepare in time, to avoid potential difficulties and dangers, thereby reducing the risk of achieving the goals. Development of strategy and tactics of production and economic activity of the firm is the most important task for any business [6].

The essence of planning is manifested in the specification of the development goals of the whole firm and each unit separately for a certain period; definition of economic tasks, means of their achievement, terms and sequence of realization; identification of material, labor and financial resources that are necessary to solve the tasks.