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A. Sociology of youth: Textbook / ed.

A. Sociology of youth: Textbook / ed.

Very often acmeological technologies are identified with psychological technologies, but they are only close, but not identical. In particular, their fundamental difference is the direction of action.

Acmeological technologies differ primarily in their humanistic orientation, because they are designed to help in the progressive development of personality, while psychological influences are inherently manipulative. The humanistic orientation of acmeological technologies became the basis for the humanitarian and technological development of the individual.

Humanistic technologies of self-knowledge, self-assessment, self-development are developed and successfully used in acmeology. Acmeological technologies are always individually oriented, they are used for personal and professional development of the individual. The main method of acmeological technologies is acmeological influence.

Acmeological influence is an integrated and purposeful influence that is exerted on an individual or a group, and has a humanistic meaning and is aimed at the development of an individual or group. Increasing the level of self-regulation as a result of acmeological influence is necessary in order to form people’s self-confidence, their own strength, eliminate panic and pessimism, fear of tomorrow, increase their efficiency, resilience, more fully realize their potential and make a person stronger.

The development of tools for acmeological technologies has led to the formation of a direction called acmetectonics.


Volkov Yu. G., Dobrenkov VI, Kadaria FD, Savchenko IP, Shapovalov VA Sociology of youth: Textbook / ed. Prof. Yu. G. Volkova. – Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2001. Golovaty NF Sociology of Youth: Course of lectures. – Kyiv, 1999. Golovenko VA Ukrainian youth movement in the twentieth century. – K., 1997. Kravchenko AI Sociology: Textbook. manual for students. higher ped. Textbook. routine. – M. Publishing Center „Academy” 2002. Pavlovsky VV Juventology: a project of integrative science of youth. – Moscow: Academic Project, 2001. On the situation of youth in Ukraine. Annual report of the President of Ukraine to the Cabinet of Ministers and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Chernysh N. Sociology. Course of lectures. – Lviv: Calvary, 2003.

May 22, 2012

Gerontology: basic concepts, theories and history of development. Abstract

Basic concepts of gerontology. General laws and theories of aging. Types of aging. History of gerontology as a science

Old age is a very difficult period in a person’s life, and demographic aging requires society to increase financial costs and other material resources to serve this age group. Society must take on all the problems associated with the protection and social services and the provision of the elderly.

Population aging is one of the global problems of the modern world. According to the classification of the World Health Organization, the elderly population is aged 60 to 74, the elderly – from 75 to 89 years, and long-lived – 90 years and older. Sociologists call these periods of human life the „third age” and demographers introduce the concepts of the „third” (60-75 years) and „fourth” (over 75 years) ages.

Social gerontology at the present stage feels the need to:

theoretical systematization, which would justify the phenomenon of aging in all its aspects; training of professionals capable of developing and implementing state programs for the elderly and the elderly, as well as to pursue a policy of social protection for persons of this age group.

The purpose of the course is to acquaint future professionals:

with the biosocial essence of aging and old age; with the aging of the population as a demographic process in all its social consequences; with social, psychological, medical problems of the elderly and old age; with features of adaptation to the retirement period of life; with the possibilities of employment of a person in old age; with the basics of caring for helpless elderly people, as well as other socio-psychological, moral and ethical issues.

This will allow future professionals to avoid negative moments in practice with this group.

Basic concepts of gerontology

Gerontology – (from the Greek gerontos – aging and logos – science) – is the science of old age and aging, which studies https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ the aging process from a general biological point of view, as well as explores the essence of old age and the impact of its arrival on man and society.

It is necessary to clearly distinguish between the concepts of aging and old age. Old age is a naturally occurring final period of age-old individual development. Aging is a destructive process that leads to a decrease in physiological functions of the body. Aging is a constantly evolving and irreversible changes in the structures and functions of a living system. Aging is first and foremost a function of time, it cannot be stopped. Old age and death are inevitable.

Aging is a process of contradictory development of living cells from the moment of the origin of life to its end. The assumption that potentially immortal microorganisms deprived of the scientific value of life on the planet as a whole is limitless, there are no limits to the possibilities of its development, but life within the framework of individual existence, limited in time, does not have these properties. For the stage of individual development, life programs are programmed, including aging and the end of life-death.

The basic concepts of gerontology – age, aging, old age, longevity, immortality – reflect human ideas about life processes, objective laws of life, as well as a strong desire to live long.

General laws and theories of aging

Regularities are stable, repetitive, objectively existing essential connections in this phenomenon.

Aging is associated with changes that take place at all levels of the organization of vital matter. Regular age-related changes in the body are called homeoresis. Determination of homeoresis allows you to predict the rate of aging – natural, hidden or slow.

There are two traditional views on the causes of aging (patterns):

Aging is a genetically programmed process, the result of the regular implementation of the program laid down in the genetic apparatus. Aging is the result of the destruction of the body caused by various factors, the action of which is repeated and accumulates throughout life.

The famous gerontologist VV Frolkis wrote that each person can easily determine the difference between young and old, but no one can give a comprehensive scientific description of the essence of aging and the mechanisms of its development. Scientist A. Comfort emphasized that none of the hypotheses is able to explain aging.

There are currently more than 200 different theories of the aging process. For example:

The starting position of the so-called theory of wear is: living systems age under the influence of intense life processes, and aging accelerates or slows down according to the laws of physics depending on the dynamics of processes at the level of cells, tissues, the whole organism. Scientists of this theory have argued that all individuals in the population have approximately the same life expectancy, but its limit is determined by the rate of wear, and life expectancy depends on the average amount of energy expended per 1 kg of individual weight. The theory of consumption of „vital” energy in cells. Representatives of this theory of aging (M. Berger) believe that each organism inherits a certain amount of „vital enzyme” which is consumed over time, which brings the body closer to death. The mathematical model of aging and old age made it possible to study old age as regular, mathematically measurable phenomena that occur with a gradual increase in disease and the probability of death. Intoxication theories of aging. At the end of the XIX century. Charles Buhard put forward the position „Every organism is a laboratory for toxins.” Scientists believe that aging is a process of self-intoxication as a result of increased levels of toxins in the cell. The theory of disharmony is represented by the concept of internal contradictions, according to which aging is the result of a violation of the possibility of cell renewal. There is a concept that explains aging by the influence of biophysical factors on the genetic apparatus of cells and the accumulation of radioactive substances. High concentration of radioactive elements disrupts metabolic processes and causes aging processes in the cell.

In addition to the above theories, there are molecular, cellular and neurohumoral mechanisms of aging.

The essence of molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging is:

1. Violation of the genetic apparatus of cells, protein biosynthesis programs (with age, errors in genetic information accumulate, which leads to the appearance of „defective” proteins).

2. Violation of cellular bioenergy.

3. Decrease in cell mass (death of a certain part of cells leads to the fact that other cells fall under a heavy load, which contributes to their hyperfunction; causes aging).

4. Cytomorphological changes (in the cells that do not divide accumulate the products of their activity, which contributes to aging).

5. Functional changes:

decreased ability of neurons to reproduce information; reduced function of secretory cells – to synthesize and secrete substances; reduction of working capacity, etc.

6. The sequence and pattern of aging of cells of different types. Primary aging is characteristic of non-dividing cells. Cell division frees it from gross age-related changes. It is believed that there is a limit to the number of cell divisions, which determines the lifespan of the cell population and causes aging.

The theory of aging, developed by VV Frolkis. According to his teachings, the aging of the body is associated primarily with a violation of the mechanisms of self-regulation and the processes of processing and transmission of information at different levels of life. Currently, according to the scientist, important manifestations of aging are the result of age-related changes in the brain.

According to the Bulgarian gerontologist G. Stoynev, the closest to the truth are theories and concepts that represent aging as a biosocial phenomenon, the dynamics of which are influenced by genetic, social, economic factors.

In essence, each of these characteristics of aging is a function of time, representing a specific type and form of chronopathology of the involutionary process.